The Essentials of Comedy

by Ken Ludwig

05/16/12 14:11

"Ken Ludwig on Comedy" is a new, re-occurring series on [Breaking Character], penned by playwright Ken Ludwig, winner of two Laurence Olivier Awards and three Tony Award Nominations. For more information about Ken Ludwig and his plays, visit



Last month I was in Paris for a week, meeting a new French literary agent and a new translator, and I had the good luck to get a seat for the Saturday matinee performance at the Comédie-Francaise.    The Comédie-Francaise was founded in 1680, and in its early days was called The House of Moliere.  The theater now has a repertoire that includes the works of dozens of playwrights, but I was fortunate enough to see one of Moliere’s greatest plays that day, Le Malade Imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid).  As it turned out, the performance was not only outstanding in itself, but also the perfect reminder of how comedy is created out of certain essential building blocks that haven’t changed in hundreds of years.


Le Malade Imaginaire is about a man named Argan who is the quintessential hypochondriac.  He spends night and day buying new medicines, and as the play begins, he has come up with his newest idea for saving himself:  forcing his daughter Angélique to marry his doctor’s son, a disgusting, cadaverous young man who has nothing going for him but his father’s profession.  Argan’s notion is that having a doctor in the family will not only save him money, but maintain the kind of medical presence that the household needs.  What better resource for a hypochondriac than a doctor in the house?


Angélique, meanwhile, wants to marry a handsome, loyal suitor named Cléante, and her father’s insistence on a wedding with the doctor’s son fills her with dread.  At the same time, Argan has a scheming second wife who encourages him to make out a new will, leaving her everything and cutting out her step-daughter Angélique.  Finally, Argan has a cheeky maidservant named Toinette who taunts him for his foolish behavior and ultimately saves the day.


Watching the production last month was like being transported back to the play’s premiere in 1673.  The stage pictures, like still photographs of a race, were all perfectly composed, belying hundreds of years of accumulated skill.  More than that, the performances themselves were filled with lazzi, those comic routines that form the mainstay of a type of improvisational comedy that began in Italy during the Renaissance, commedia dell’arte.  Imagine seeing Argan, howling like a madman, chasing Toinette around the room because she makes fun of his medical remedies.  Imagine Toinette huffing and puffing across the stage disguised as a doctor wearing enormous glasses.  Imagine Argan playing dead at Toinette’s insistence so that she can expose his wife’s villainy and prove the loyalty of Angélique.  And all of it executed with split-second timing performed, or so it seemed, with complete ease.


But here’s the remarkable thing:  for all the embellishments of the actors, for all the exaggeration of the costumes, the silliness of the props and the zaniness of the routines, the performance somehow plumbed the very depths of what serious comedy is all about.


What happened that day went to the heart of great comedy because comedy first and foremost lives by tradition.  What comedy is not is a series of jokes.  It is not just laughter, though there should certainly be a lot of it.  It is not just happy endings, though comedies usually contain happy endings, one way or the other.  Comedy is a form of drama that contains certain recurring tropes that seem to have some elemental hold upon us as human beings; and our identity with those tropes makes us live through the characters so that we worry with them, suffer with them, cry with them, and then, ultimately, laugh with them.


Le Malade Imaginaire exhibits at least four of the most basic motifs in all of comedy.  First, it is about the older generation trying to thwart the sexual urges of the young – often, as here, involving a father and a daughter.  Now let’s see, where have we seen that before?  A Midsummer Night’s Dream?  The Man Who Came To Dinner?  Nearly every Roman comedy ever written?  (I used it myself in one of my first plays, Lend Me A Tenor.) 


Second, there is the scheming servant who outwits his master.  Moliere is full of them (Scapin being the most famous); and we see them again and again down through the ages, from Volpone to The Marriage of Figaro, from The Lying Valet to One Man, Two Guvnors.  (I tried this one out in Leading Ladies.)


Third comes the shrewish wife, in this case Argan’s second, Béline.  This tradition goes all the way back to Plautus again (see Mrs. Manaechmus) and Noah’s wife in the medieval mystery cycles.  Then there’s The Taming of the Shrew, The School for Scandal, and When We Are Married. (Shrewish wives are not quite the stuff of modern comedy, Fawlty Towers notwithstanding, but I tiptoed around it in The Fox on the Fairway.)


Fourth, there’s the lover-disguised-as-a-teacher so that he can get close to daughter of the house and woo her behind her father’s back.  The Taming of the Shrew again.  The Barber of Seville.  The list goes on and on.


If all this sounds a bit pedantic, the point is crucial:  Comedy is made up of strong, time-tested, traditional motifs that somehow go to the depths of who we are as social beings.  Writers of dramatic comedy stand on the shoulders of the giants who came before them.  Shakespeare.  Goldsmith.  Wilde.  Coward.  We learn from them, we practice their artistry and, hopefully, we pass their traditions on to the next generation.  For me, this is one of the very best parts of being a playwright.


© Ken Ludwig, 2012



Read more about Ken in his FOCUS ON A PLAYWRIGHT.


Take a look at this [Breaking Character] article about one of Ken's latest plays, MIDSUMMER/JERSEY.


Check out Ken’s plays, available from Samuel French
Be My Baby
The Beaux’ Stratagem
The Fox on the Fairway
The Game's Afoot
Leading Ladies
Lend me a Tenor
Moon Over Buffalo
Shakespeare in Hollywood
Sullivan & Gilbert
The Three Musketeers
Treasure Island
Twentieth Century


  • paula ungar

I enjoyed yur article on Moliere and the idea of comedy and what it really means.When I lived in Paris I had always wanted to go there and thought because my french was not great even after living there for 4 years- I would not understand the nuances. Much to my surprise when I read the program there was an English translation on the back. and of course it was a delightful play to see. It is 20 years  ago and I do not recall which play I saw. I went with a french friend and we both enjoyed the   play. I would encourage   travelers to go there for a lovely afternoon of theater.

6/2/2012 8:14:16 AM
  • Sam Roogin

Great Article!  I'm going to print this out and share it with a class on acting.  Excited to see what's next in the series, Ken!

6/4/2012 5:04:13 PM
  • Katy DiSavino

Thank you both for leaving comments! Ken's new article will be coming up soon and we're all really excited you liked the first in the series!

6/14/2012 5:02:16 PM
  • senlldy

Handbags are a very important fashion accessory for men and women. Every day, lots of new handbags are created by talented designers. Therefore, the trend of cheap longchamp handbags changes quickly. In the event you a fashionista and a fan of Gucci handbags, you will definately get frustrated with this frequently changing trend of handbag because soon after you buy a Gucci handbag there are a new one appearing on the. No one can bear this method. What's more, Gucci handbags are renowned for their fake louis vuitton amazingly high prices in the world, so no matter how rich you are, you can go bankrupt if you would like to keep pace with the fashion trend. There tend to be kinds of fashion bags in market, in which means you can this is the wanted one easily. Next, I would share part of my favorite fashion along with you. T-shirts with expressions regarding the cheap replica handbags front were shown at Duckie Brown at Mercedes-Benz 2014 bag the year 2010. These fun shirts, made with good quality cotton, could be paired with Duckie Brown jeans. Plaid, plaid and more plaid would be a consistent theme throughout cheap soccer jerseys Duckie Brown at Mercedes-Benz 2014 bag the year 2010. These plaids were paired with solids of a classy, yet trendy looks. Tonight mark's the first-ever Fashion's Night Out, sponsored by Vogue, NYC & Co. and also the CFDA. It's basically chanel replica shopping, mingling and merely having plain fun planet New York City (and did I mention, huge discounts the world over?).

7/10/2014 12:02:36 AM
  • polo

8/30/2014 6:50:54 AM
  • Asics Tiger

  • vv

To deal with your own diamonds all that's necessary is definitely an baby toothbrush, ammonia, drinking water along with a gentle material. A person saturate your own jewellery within a little bit of ammonia coupled with drinking water after that wash this gently using the teeth clean. This can assist get rid of all the muck which accumulates onto it. After that wash this away along with drinking water as well as dried out using the fabric. It'll definitely sparkle clean following this. In case your jewellery offers gems, you need to not really saturate your own jewellery when you're>rolex  replica</a> attempting to thoroughly clean this. Gems may take in drinking water as well as cleaning soap, activating these phones shed their own organic colour. When you're cleansing gems, you need to utilize a moist material in order to wash this thoroughly clean to help you protect your own jewelry's organic original appeal.

9/18/2014 5:43:23 AM
  • sfs

10/10/2014 6:45:18 AM
  • coach factory outlet coach factory outlet coach outlet coach outlet online coach factory outlet coach outlet online coach factory outlet coach outlet online coach outlet coach outlet store online coach outlet online coach factory outlet coach outlet store online coach factory outlet coach factory outlet online official coach factory outlet coach black friday coach factory outlet coach outlet kate spade outlet online kate spade handbags kate spade outlet online kate spade black friday michael kors outlet michael kors outlet online michael kors outlet michael kors outlet michael kors black friday michael kors handbags michael kors outlet michael kors outlet michael kors outlet online michael kors outlet online louis vuitton outlet louis vuitton louis vuitton outlet online louis vuitton outlet stores louis vuitton handbags louis vuitton black friday louis vuitton outlet prada outlet prada handbags prada black friday marc by marc jacobs celine handbags celine outlet ray ban sunglasses oakley sunglasses ray-ban sunglasses ray-ban sunglasses ray ban sunglasses ray ban black friday oakley sunglasses oakley sunglasses oakley vault oakley black friday toms shoes outlet online hollister clothing store abercrombie and fitch abercrombie and fitch abercrombie black friday polo ralph lauren polo ralph lauren tory burch outlet tory burch shoes tory burch outlet tory burch black friday nike air jordan valentino toms shoes outlet online supra shoes true religion true religion black friday true religion outlet true religion jeans tiffany and co tiffany and co tiffany and co tiffany black friday frey wille jewellery sac longchamp timberland shoes red bottom shoes red bottom shoes

10/14/2014 5:20:41 AM
  • polo

12/1/2014 12:40:16 AM
  • oakleysunglasses,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

12/15/2014 5:44:12 AM
  • Mebel Jepara

mebel jati, mebel jepara, meubel indonesia, furniture indonesia, mebel murah

12/25/2014 11:09:47 PM
  • Mebel Jepara

filter air, penyaring air, penjernih air http://www.filterairsemarang/

12/25/2014 11:11:20 PM
  • Mebel Jepara

Eks Jepang, Kerja Jepang, Magang Jepang, Lowongan Kerja Jepang

12/25/2014 11:13:11 PM
  • Mebel Jepara

Toko Bunga, Toko Bunga di Jakarta, Toko Bunga Murah

12/25/2014 11:14:08 PM
  • Mebel Jepara

Rental Mobil Surabaya

12/25/2014 11:17:18 PM
  • Anti Rayap

  • keyuanyuan ;

1/2/2015 1:49:39 PM
  • kang zero

All the contents you mentioned in post is too good and can be very useful. I will keep it in mind, thanks for sharing the information keep updating, looking forward for more posts. | | |

1/9/2015 8:39:27 AM
  • fdsfdsafds

1/12/2015 5:46:44 AM
  • spondylarthrite ankylosante

Thank you very much for sharing such a nice post with us, visit the website dedicated to ankylosing spondylitis : | spondylarthrite ankylosante

1/13/2015 1:23:35 PM

Pingbacks and trackbacks (1)+

Add comment

  • Comment
  • Preview